Increasing numbers of men are facing loneliness and isolation in old age, suggests research.
Men are often reluctant to join clubs for older people, says the study by the International Longevity Centre (ILC-UK) and the charity, Independent Age.
It predicts the number of older men living alone in England will increase by 65% by 2030.
"When their partner dies, often a man's social life shrinks," said Independent Age chief executive Janet Morrison.
The report: The Emerging Crisis for Older Men, says older women will still be more likely to outlive their husbands but, by 2030, growing numbers of men will outlive their wives.
The analysis of recent data from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing suggests 1.5 million older men will be living alone by 2030 - up from 911,000 today.